Minimal Cell More Complex Than Expected

first_imgCraig Venter’s lab has been working on an interesting project in theoretical biology: what is the minimum set of genes needed for life?  They have taken one of the simplest organisms, Mycoplasma genitalium, and knocked out genes to see which ones are essential and which are nonessential for viability.  (This is part of the “top down” approach to understanding the origin of life; the “bottom up” approach, by contrast, tries to build life from scratch).  Their latest results, published in PNAS,1 showed a larger number of essential genes – 347 – than their earlier prediction in 1999.  That’s 79% of the organism’s inventory. This is a significantly greater number of essential genes than the 265-350 predicted in our previous study of M. genitalium, or in the gene knockoutdisruption study that identified 279 essential genes in Bacillus subtilis, which is a more conventional bacterium from the same Firmicutes taxon as M. genitalium.  Similarly, our finding of 387 essential protein-coding genes greatly exceeds theoretical projections of how many genes comprise a minimal genome such as Mushegian and Koonin’s 256 genes shared by both H. influenzae and M. genitalium, and the 206-gene core of a minimal bacterial gene set proposed by Gil et al.  One of the surprises about the essential gene set is its inclusion of 110 hypothetical proteins and proteins of unknown function.  Some of these genes likely encode enzymes with activities reported in M. genitalium, such as transaldolase, but for which no gene has yet been annotated.   (Emphasis added in all quotes.)Since this organism, an obligate human parasite, is apparently stripped down to bare essentials, “it is likely that all its 482 protein-coding genes are in some way necessary for effective growth,” they said.  The team hopes this information will lead to building synthetic free-living cells.1Glass, Venter et al., “Essential genes of a minimal bacterium,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, Published online before print January 3, 2006, 10.1073/pnas.0510013103.Wow – that’s a lot of genes, for a lot of proteins and cellular functions.  The authors’ charts of gene networks look like complex flowcharts designed by an engineer.  Since getting one protein by chance is so improbable it would never happen in countless universes (see online book), expecting to get 387 is overkill on evolutionary theories, kind of like H-bombing a city a googolplex number of times.  After awhile, it becomes ridiculous to expect to find any survivors.    What’s also interesting are the 100 or so nonessential genes.  How could these evolve?  If they do not have survival value, why would nature select them?  Darwinism’s criterion of survival value appears to be too reductionist to explain many aspects of life that, while not essential, add some seasoning to life.(Visited 10 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

How to Generate Easy LUTs in Photoshop

first_imgLookup tables are one of the most useful tools for editors, colorists, and DPs alike. Here’s how you can generate LUTs in Photoshop in a pinch.As a colorist, I regularly need to create LUTs for a wide variety of applications. They’re most often utilized in my own post-production pipeline as a means to streamline the DI process, but LUTs have so many other uses as well. For instance, I’ll occasionally generate a LUT for an editor to use during an offline edit or for a DP to load into their cinema camera.Most of the time I’m working in DaVinci Resolve, which of course is a dedicated color grading platform. As such, Resolve has built-in LUT generating capabilities, so naturally when I need to create a lookup table for any reason, Resolve is always my first choice.That said, there have been many instances where I was asked to generate a LUT for one reason or another, but didn’t have access to my DaVinci system. In these cases, I’ll turn to Photoshop.While many applications can generate LUTs, I find Adobe Photoshop to be ideal for the task, given the simplicity of the process and overall amount of control that you have. This is the typical workflow I’d recommend for generating LUTs in Photoshop:1. Import a StillSimply import a high-res frame from your project (RAW or otherwise) into Photoshop. You can import video as well, but this will take much longer to load.2. Add Adjustment LayersCreate at least one adjustment layer, and make your color corrections as desired.3. Export the LUTClick File > Export > Color Lookup Tables and then choose your settings and save. It’s as simple as that.I really love that Photoshop allows you to customize your LUT by offering several different formats (3DL, cube, CSP, ICC) and even lets you set the exact amount of grid points. These tools are very helpful for maximizing the compatibility and use of your LUT files.You may not always need to use Photoshop to generate LUTs, but chances are you already have it installed on your system. In a pinch, it’s a fantastic option.Got any workflow tips you’d like to share? Let us know in the comments below!last_img read more

‘Quick adjustment’ for returning Blatche

first_imgStronger peso trims PH debt value to P7.9 trillion LATEST STORIES Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa Read Next QC cops nab robbery gang leader, cohort MOST READ CPP denies ‘Ka Diego’ arrest caused ‘mass panic’ among S. Tagalog NPA Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.netAndray Blatche may have been away from Gilas Pilipinas for much of 2017, and yet the big man felt like he never left.Gilas held a practice session Sunday at Smart Araneta Coliseum in preparation for its game against Japan in the 2019 Fiba World Cup qualifiers where Blatche is once again the team’s naturalized player.ADVERTISEMENT “We had practice earlier in the day and I’m pretty much comfortable with the offense, the defense, the players, and the coaching staff,” said Blatche, who arrived in the country early Sunday morning.“It was a quick adjustment for me.”FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutBlatche was also visibly in great shape, a far cry when he arrived in the country for the last Fiba qualifiers in 2016.The former Brooklyn Net played for the Xinjiang Flying Tigers in the Chinese Basketball Association and his commitment with the club was the reason why he had just joined Gilas’ practices. “I feel great, I’m in good shape and this was because I was playing overseas in China,” said Blatche.He added that Fiba’s new home and away format does not bother him, and that the team is focused on winning in wherever country they’re in.“I’m just looking forward to winning, whenever where we at the main focus is winning,” said Blatche. “We’ll go to Japan and get a win, we’ll come back here and get a win, that’s the goal.”ADVERTISEMENTcenter_img Japan ex-PM Nakasone who boosted ties with US dies at 101 Kris Aquino ‘pretty chill about becoming irrelevant’ View comments Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Blue Eagles misfire, lose confidence in defeat to Tamaraws Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles01:35U.S. urges Japan, South Korea to share intel00:50Trending Articles01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Gameslast_img read more

Venus Williams loses in 4th round at French Open

first_imgRobredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss PLAY LIST 02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Every 18 seconds someone is diagnosed with HIV MOST READ Palace: Duterte to hear out security execs on alleged China control of NGCP BREAKING: Cop killed, 11 hurt in Misamis Oriental grenade blast BSP survey: PH banks see bright horizon amid dark global recession clouds Alcantara, Verbeek credit ‘good vibes’ in second doubles ITF Futures crown BREAKING: Cop killed, 11 hurt in Misamis Oriental grenade blast Venus Williams of the U.S. plays a shot against Timea Bacsinszky of Switzerland during their fourth round match of the French Open tennis tournament at the Roland Garros stadium, in Paris, France. Sunday, June 4, 2017. (AP Photo/Michel Euler)PARIS  – Venus Williams has lost in the fourth round of the French Open to 30th-seeded Timea Bacsinszky of Switzerland, meaning the tournament will produce a first-time Grand Slam champion.Bacsinszky won 5-7, 6-2, 6-1 in Court Philippe Chatrier, the second year in a row that she beat Williams in the fourth round in Paris.ADVERTISEMENT LATEST STORIES Williams, who turns 37 this month, is a seven-time major champion, with all of those titles at Wimbledon or the U.S. Open. Her best French Open showing was in 2002, when she lost to her sister Serena in the final.Bacsinszky’s best result at a major tournament was reaching the semifinals at Roland Garros in 2015.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutout Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’ Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Pagasa: Storm intensifies as it nears PAR Cayetano dares Lacson, Drilon to take lie-detector test: Wala akong kinita sa SEA Games View commentslast_img read more

a month agoBayern Munich president Hoeness won’t shut down plans for Man City attacker Sane

first_imgTagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Bayern Munich president Hoeness won’t shut down plans for Man City attacker Saneby Paul Vegasa month agoSend to a friendShare the loveBayern Munich president Uli Hoeness says they remain keen on Manchester City attacker Leroy Sane.Bayern pushed hard to sign the Germany international over the summer before he suffered a knee injury in the Community Shield against Liverpool.However long-term, Hoeness says they remain keen.He told Planet Futbol: “We were very interested, we had talks with him. But after his bad injury we could not continue. “We have to wait and see how his recovery is going. In January or February, the new people in the club will sit down and think.” last_img

StealthGas Offloads Two Oldies

first_imgzoom As part of its fleet renewal strategy, LPG shipping company StealthGas has sold two of its oldest vessels, the 1992-built Gas Moxie and the 1996-built Gas Nirvana.Both ships were sold for further trading and at a very good premium above their scrap values, 78% and 220% respectively, Board Chairman Michael Jolliffe, commented.Harry Vafias, StealthGas CEO, said that these ships were destined to go for scrap if the market hadn’t recovered, but instead, they fetched really good prices.“So that means that there’s a shortage of good ships, and that people that have the cargoes need to get ships of any age to move their cargoes,” Vafias said.The sales come on the back of the disposal of two other older vessels, which were sold in the second quarter of the year, the Gas Emperor and the Gas Icon, both built in 1994. According to Jolliffe, they were both sold at about 150% premium above scrap value.“These sales took place in order to further boost our liquidity and ease our operating cost base. We still maintain strong earnings visibility and have a strong fleet coverage of 63% for 2018.As our market fundamentals are improving and look promising for the future, we hope to further improve upon our performance – increase our revenues, strengthen our profitability and continue to contain our costs,” Joliffe added.In the third quarter of the year, StealthGas saw a 12 percent increase in revenue when compared with the last year’s Q3, reaching USD 38.5 million. The company’s adjusted EBITDA amounted to USD 15.3 million for the quarter.This increase was attributed to the high utilization of the fleet, with the company’s operational utilization coming close to 96% compared to 88% for the same period of last year.The company managed to secure 16 new charters and charter extensions, the majority of which were booked at rates about 15% higher than where the market was six months ago, Joliffe said.“Currently, the average duration of our charters is around nine months, as we strategically do not want to commit our vessels for long periods now that the market fundamentals and day rates are finally improving. We have strong period coverage, which currently stands at about 90% for the remainder of 2017 and 63% so far for 2018,” he added.The market fundamentals look good when considering demand-supply balance.In terms of scrapping activity, since the beginning of 2017, 10 LPG vessels were scrapped, including some small semi-ref vessels.“Taking into account the 22% of the small LPG fleet is above 20 years of age, it’s anticipated that scrapping will accelerate further in the years to come. As per published orders, there are six vessels on order that is only 1.7% of the total fleet to be delivered in the period 2018-2019. The limited order book of our segment is another positive factor for rates and existing tonnage demand,” Vafias noted.Revenues for the nine months ended September 30, 2017, amounted to USD 115.9 million, an increase of 8.6%, compared to revenues of $106.7 million for the same period a year earlier.Adjusted nine-month net income was USD 4.7 million, compared to the adjusted net loss of USD 3.8 million for the same period of last year.last_img read more

Womens Hockey No 5 Ohio State drops pair of games in weekend

Ohio State redshirt junior goalie Kassidy Sauve (32) goes for a save in the first period of the game against Minnesota on Jan. 19. Ohio State won 3-2. Credit: Jack Westerheide | Photo EditorThe No. 5 Ohio State women’s hockey team (17-6-4, 10-3-4 WCHA) was swept in both matchups to Minnesota Duluth (11-13-2, 7-10-2 WCHA) on Friday and Saturday to end its five-game win streak.Game 1Ohio State dropped the series opener 4-1 Friday despite outshooting Minnesota Duluth 39-28 in the game. Just four minutes in the first period, Minnesota Duluth redshirt senior forward Katerina Mrazova scored the first goal of the game, and the only goal of the period.Ohio State responded by evening the game at one goal apiece when freshman forward Tatum Skaggs found the back of the net five minutes into the second period. Junior defender Lauren Boyle and freshman forward Emma Maltais were credited with assists.Minnesota Duluth sophomore defender Jalyn Elmes scored the go-ahead goal to take a 2-1 lead 8:55 into the second period..The Bulldogs were not finished in the second period. Sophomore forward Sydney Brodt and freshman forward Naomi Rogge scored two goals in the period to pull away 4-1, a score which held for the remainder of the game.Ohio State attempted 14 shots in the third period, but none found the back of the net, dropping the first game 4-1. Game 2Ohio State held Minnesota Duluth scoreless through the first two periods of the series finale, but a pair of third period goals pushed the Bulldogs in front for a 2-1 win against the Buckeyes Saturday. The Buckeyes could not find the back of the net in the first period, despite taking 19 shots. But 11 minutes into the second period, Skaggs gave Ohio State a 1-0 lead with her second goal of the series and the first goal of the game.After being shut out through the first two periods, Minnesota Duluth struck early in the third period, scoring a goal from freshman forward Anna Klein 3:52 into the period.Klein followed her goal up with a second score late in the third period to give Minnesota Duluth a 2-1. The Bulldogs held on for the win, rebounding from Ohio State’s October sweep of Minnesota Duluth. read more

Football 3 Ohio State players to watch on offense in the Spring

Ohio State freshman offensive lineman Josh Myers prepares for practice at fall camp on Aug. 5. Credit: Colin Hass-Hill | Sports Editor.The Ohio State football team will head into the 2018 season without many familiar names. There will be no J.T. Barrett at quarterback. No Billy Price at center. No Marcus Baugh at tight end. Instead, there will be somewhat of a young team with only a handful of returning starters.Though the wide receiving corps and running back duo remain largely the same, there will be other young players competing for playing time during the spring game that will be worth watching. Here are a couple of players to keep track of in Saturday’s Spring Game.Jaylen HarrisOhio State began the 2017 season with six starting wide receivers: Johnnie Dixon, Terry McLaurin, Austin Mack and Binjimen Victor, K.J. Hill and Parris Campbell. All will return in 2018.Every wideout brings something different to the table, but none seem to be the top target a passing team needs. Mack has at times looked the part, but he still has more left to prove.Second-year Jaylen Harris, however, could be the missing top target Ohio State needs. Though he caught just two passes for 27 yards last season, Harris offers the Buckeyes a massive target at 6-foot-5, 215 pounds with the speed to be an impact wideout. The former four-star recruit ranked as the 177th-best prospect, 28th-best wide receiver and fourth-best player in the state of Ohio in the 2017 class.He will likely face an uphill battle trying to force playing time in a large group of returning veterans. However, he could get a chance to see ample playing time in the Spring Game with Hill sidelined and the other veterans potentially receiving more rest early. Harris still has plenty to prove, but he could be the top wideout for the Buckeyes if given the playing time.Josh MyersOhio State head coach Urban Meyer has expressed concern in the past with how the battle for center is going with no one between the trio of Brady Taylor, Josh Myers and Matt Burrell yet stepping up in practice to fill the void left by Price.While it appears Taylor remains the favorite to win the starting job, Myers has the skills needed to take on such a role. He was a four-star recruit in the 2017 class and the top prospect in Ohio. Known best as a powerful run blocker, the 6-foot-6, 306-pound lineman just needs to prove that he can handle taking on larger defensive tackles and can effectively snap the ball to whichever quarterback is under center.Myers will likely be slotted as one of the two starters at center during the Spring Game, and it will be interesting to see whether the interior lineman can handle Ohio State’s defensive tackles. The Spring Game won’t be a deciding factor in the decision for Meyer, but it could lend a glimpse to others into how well he is faring at the position.Luke FarrellThe tight end position has historically been one relied upon by Ohio State, but the usage of the role has declined in the past several years. Baugh never was able to produce consistently and there wasn’t anyone to edge him out.While Ohio State added the second-best tight-end recruit in the 2018 recruiting class in Jeremy Ruckert, head coach Urban Meyer said Wednesday that Luke Farrell might be in front of both the four-star tight end and last year’s backup, Rashod Berry.“Luke Farrell has kind of advanced in front of the other guys,” Meyer said on Wednesday’s Big Ten coaches teleconference. “But we’re still trying to finalize that.”Farrell had only two catches for 19 yards in 2017, but was once considered the seventh-best tight end prospect in the 2016 recruiting class. The 6-foot-6, 244-pound tight end was unable to force his way into playing time in 2017. But the redshirt sophomore has a lot to offer Ohio State if he can make himself a reliable receiver.He has never been viewed as an obvious starter at Ohio State. If he starts to show more speed in the Spring Game with the hands needed to be a full-time player at the position, Farrell could go a long way in solidifying his spot as the starting tight end. read more

Video Napoli launch new kit in weird Panther cartoon

first_imgThe World Cup is now officially over with heads now turned towards the domestic season once more with clubs now releasing their new kits and Napoli have become the latest to launch their’s in an unusual waySerie A supporters are in for an exciting time this season with the arrival of Cristiano Ronaldo at Juventus and Carlo Ancelotti’s appointment as the new Napoli boss just a taste of what to expect.The fixtures for the 2018/19 campaign will be released on Friday with the opening games set to begin on the weekend of the 18th and 19th of August.And it appears that the fans are not the only getting worked up with Napoli having now shared a teaser of what their players will be wearing for the new season.The panther kit was released in both a weird and wonderful cartoon, which saw a very muscular version of captain Marek Hamsik appearing before the panther in his new gear, along with his teammates.Maurizio Sarri, JuventusMaurizio Sarri satisfied despite Juventus’ draw at Fiorentina Andrew Smyth – September 14, 2019 Maurizio Sarri was satisfied with Juventus’ performance on Saturday afternoon after finishing a tough game at Fiorentina 0-0.Napoli were very close last season to ending their 28-year wait for glory in the Serie A since the Diego Maradona days.But the Lights Blues finished four points behind winners Juventus after leading the league table for most of the campaign and were largely unlucky following a difficult end to the season.While head coach Maurizio Sarri and star playmaker Jorginho have both left for Chelsea, there is still plenty of optimism around the Napoli camp with Ancelotti’s arrivals and Hamsik opting to remain with the club – despite a lucrative offer from China.The New 2018/19 jersey. #ForzaNapoliSempre pic.twitter.com/oDJB2mj69s— Everything Napoli (@NaplesAndNapoli) July 18, 2018last_img read more

Government Assessed 250M for TS Cristobal Recovery

first_imgFacebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsApp Related Items:anya williams, peter beckingham, rufus ewing, Ts cristobal DEPUTY GOVERNOR SPEAKS OF STREAMLINING GOVERNMENT SERVICES. Dames is first Hospitality Hero Recommended for you Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsAppA quarter of a million dollars is what government estimates the recovery has directly forced in direct spending so far as the Premier yesterday, following a meeting declared that the country is bouncing back from TS Cristobal. The Storm for three days last week impacted weather conditions here; and dumped 14 inches of rain, according to government, on these islands. The flooding so severe in North Caicos for example, that the national disaster committee formed in the aftermath of the storm said it compares easily to the flooding in 1995, which took one month for North Caicos to be returned to a state of normalcy. That emergency committee, co-chaired by the Premier Rufus Ewing and the Governor, with the acting Governor Anya Williams – in for Peter Beckingham – explained that: “This cost is directly attributed to the rental of heavy equipment, the creation of the new access route, the construction of five new additional wells in the Leeward district and other recovery costs, such as anti-mosquito chemicals.” The work is not over obviously… on Monday the DDME telling MM it estimates another week; and now damage assessment teams have been mobilized to the various affected areas on both North Caicos and Providenciales and will be assessing damages that are still in place. TCI European Union money could be lost due to UK referendum on membershiplast_img read more